Typhoid fever is a disease that is caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi. This illness is common in many countries of the world. Most cases diagnosed in the U.S. are acquired during travel to other countries. Salmonella typhi is a pathogenic bacterium which causes typhoid fever in human beings. These pathogens generally enter the small intestine through food and water contaminated with them and migrate to other organs through blood (Watch Typhoid Video to learn more).
Most people get typhoid fever by eating or drinking food or water that has been contaminated by people with the disease, including by those who do not have any symptoms. Raw fruits and vegetables, milk, and shellfish are the types of foods most often associated with illness. Person-to-person spread can also occur. Salmonella typhi bacteria live in the intestines of infected persons and are found in the feces and urine of a person who is ill or who is a carrier of the bacteria (a carrier has no symptoms of illness but continues to shed bacteria). The bacteria may be found in food, water, or surfaces that have been contaminated with infected feces. The disease is spread by eating food contaminated with the bacteria or by putting a contaminated object in one’s mouth. For example, water can be contaminated with sewage. Food and surfaces can be contaminated by contact with infected feces from a person’s hands.
Symptoms of Typhoid:
Some people who are infected do not develop illness. Others may develop fever, headache, weakness, and loss of appetite. Constipation or diarrhea may occur; stomach cramps may mimic appendicitis. Some people get “rose spots” on the trunk of the body. Symptoms may be mild, but typhoid fever can be life-threatening, especially if untreated.
Typhoid fever is diagnosed by isolating the organism from blood, stool or other body fluid. Serology tests are not useful for diagnosis. Some hospital laboratories have the ability to identify Salmonella Typhi.
Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students
Grade : 9
Subject : Biology
Lesson : Why Do We Fall Ill?
Topic: Typhoid Video
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