Goitre is an endemic disease which is caused due to deficiency of a mineral, called iodine in human diet. Iodine is an important constituent of a hormone called thyroxine which is secreted by an endocrine gland called thyroid gland. Thyroid gland is situated in the neck region of our body. Thyroxine hormone is a very important hormone. It controls the rate at which food is oxidized in the body (i.e., metabolism) which in turn regulates the process of growth, development and functions of nervous tissues. If there is less quantity of iodine in the food and water then less amount of thyroxine hormone is produced. So, due to deficiency of iodine, thyroid gland fails to secrete enough thyroxine hormone which disturbs the normal metabolism of the human body (Watch Goitre Video to learn more).
Deficiency of iodine in human diet leads to following abnormalities :
- Retarded growth
- Mental disability, and
- Abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland (called goitre).
Goitre is an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland that is commonly visible as a swelling of the anterior part of the neck. In severe iodine deficiency, the body weight increases due to accumulation of fat and retention of water in the body. Occurrence of spontaneous abortion and disorders of nervous system (e.g., 10 per cent drop in IQ of children) also take place in IDD.
Goitre is an endemic disease which is more common in hilly areas. The soil of hilly areas is poor in iodine. Due to this the drinking water as well as the food crops grown in hilly areas are deficient in iodine. This deficiency of iodine in the hilly areas, leads to increased goitre cases among hill people.
Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students
Grade : 9
Subject : Biology
Lesson : Why Do We Fall Ill?
Topic: Goitre Video
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