Introduction About Environment Pollution:
Pollution is an undesirable change in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air, water and soil that may harmfully affect the life or create a potential health hazard of any living organism. Pollution is thus direct or indirect changes in any component of the biosphere that is harmful to the living components.
Any substance which causes pollution is called a pollutant. A pollutant may thus include any chemical or geochemical (dust, sediment, grit etc.) substance, biotic component or its product, or physical factor (heat) that is released intentionally by man into the environment in such a concentration that may have adverse harmful or unpleasant effects.
Type Of Pollution:
Air Pollution :
It is defined as the excessive concentration of foreign material in the atmosphere , which affects the health of individuals and also causes damage to the property. Air pollution may be simply defined as the presence of certain substances in the air in high enough concentrations and for long enough duration to cause undesirable effects. “Certain substances” may be any gas, liquid or solid, although certain specific substances are considered significant pollutants because of very large emission rates are harmful and unwanted effects.
Effects Of Air pollution:
Air pollution is known to have many adverse effects, including those on human health, building facades and other exposed materials, vegetation, agricultural crops, animals, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and the climate of earth as a whole.
Noise Pollution :
Noise is one of the most pervasive pollutant. A musical clock may be nice to listen during the day, but may be an irritant during sleep at night. Noise by definition is “sound without value” or “any noise that is unwanted by the recipient”. Noise in industries such as stone cutting and crushing, steel forgings , loudspeakers, shouting by hawkers selling their wares, movement of heavy transport vehicles, railways and airports leads to irritation and an increased blood pressure, loss of temper, decrease in work efficiency, loss of hearing which may be first temporary but can become permanent in the noise stress continues. It is therefore of utmost importance that excessive noise is controlled.
Effects of noise pollution :
Noise pollution is highly annoying and irritating. Noise disturbs sleep, causes hypertension (high blood pressure), emotional problems such as aggression, mental depression and annoyance. Noise pollution adversely affects efficiency and performance of individuals.
Water Pollution :
Addition or presence of undesirable substances in water is called water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. Water pollution is caused by a variety of human activities such as industrial, agricultural and domestic. Agricultural run off laden with excess fertilizers and pesticides, industrial effluents with toxic substances and sewage water with human and animal wastes pollute our water thoroughly. Natural sources of pollution of water are soil erosion, leaching of minerals from rocks and decaying of organic matter. Rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, estuaries and ground water sources may be polluted by point or non-point sources.
Control Of Water Pollution:
The following measures can be adopted to control water pollution:
(a) The water requirement should be minimized by altering the techniques involved.
(b) Water should be reused with or without treatment.
(c) Recycling of water after treatment should be practiced to the maximum extent possible.
(d) The quantity of waste water discharge should be minimized.
Soil Pollution :
Addition of substances which adversely affect the quality of soil or its fertility is known as soil pollution. Generally polluted water also pollute soil. Solid waste is a mixture of plastics, cloth, glass, metal and organic matter, sewage, sewage sludge, building debris, generated from households, commercial and industries establishments add to soil pollution. Fly ash, iron and steel slag, medical and industrial wastes disposed on land are important sources of soil pollution.
To control soil pollution, it is essential to stop the use of plastic bags and instead use bags of degradable materials like paper and cloth. Sewage should be treated properly before using as fertilizer and as landfills. The organic matter from domestic, agricultural and other waste should be segregated and subjected to vermicomposting which generates useful manure as a by product.
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