Deficiency Disease is any illness associated with an insufficient supply of one or more essential dietary constituents. It is caused by a dietary deficiency of specific nutrients, especially a vitamin or mineral, possibly stemming from insufficient intake, digestion, absorption, or utilization of a nutrient. Also called insufficiency disease (Watch Deficiency Diseases Video to learn more). The deficiency diseases are of following three types :
- Protein-Energy deficiency disease or Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM);
- Vitamin deficiency;
- Mineral deficiency
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM):
Deficiency of proteins, carbohydrates and fats result’s in protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) or protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). PEM occurs more frequently among infants and young children between 1 to 5 years of age. It is an important cause of childhood sickliness and mortality. PEM is manifested as failure of body growth both in height and weight. Two common forms of PEM are kwashiorkor and marasmus.
Deficiency or lack of various minerals in the human diet gives rise to different diseases. Some of the mineral deficiency diseases are : Anaemia, Goitre, Rickets and Osteomalacia.
Anaemia is a disease in which blood is deficient in red blood cells, in haemoglobin or in total volume.
Goitre is an endemic disease which is caused due to deficiency of a mineral, called iodine in human diet. Iodine is an important constituent of a hormone called thyroxine which is secreted by an endocrine gland called thyroid gland. Thyroid gland is situated in the neck region of our body. Thyroxine hormone is a very important hormone.
Vitamin Deficiency Diseases:
Vitamins are organic compounds, which are always taken along with food in small amounts. They are important for certain metabolic activities. Absence of these in diet for prolonged periods may cause deficiency diseases or avitaminosis. Some of the important diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins are : Scurvy, Rickets, Beriberi, Pellagra and Xerophthalmia (dry eye).
Deficiency Diseases Video
Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students
Grade : 9
Subject : Biology
Lesson : Why Do We Fall Ill?
Topic: Deficiency Diseases Video
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