Cholera is a severe intestinal disease caused by the bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. The bacteria is typically found in water environments such as freshwater lakes and rivers. Cholera is usually transmitted to people or animals through contaminated water sources. Contamination comes from fecal material from infected individuals. Cholera can affect people and some animals and causes severe diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and shock. If untreated, death can occur within hours (Watch Cholera Video to learn more).
Cholera is an infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which affects the transport of water in the small intestine. The bacterium secretes a toxin, cholera toxin (CT), which causes severe fluid loss from the body into the digestive tract, leading to dehydration and ultimately death by diarrhoea. Cholera is caused by the curved, rod-shaped bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are more than 100 species of Vibrio, only a few of which are pathogenic to humans.
Most people with cholera are asymptomatic and, of those that do develop symptoms, 80% have mild diarrhoea which is difficult to distinguish from that caused by other pathogens such as viruses. As fluid is lost, the blood thickens and the skin becomes blue-grey in colour; patients also begin to suffer lethargy, a lack of consciousness, confusion and occasionally fever.
Transmission of Cholera:
Cholera infection requires a large dose of bacteria and is transmitted by the faecal-oral route, for example by drinking from a water supply contaminated with infected excrement. The bacteria can also be spread to food if infected people don’t wash their hands thoroughly after going to the toilet and before food preparation. Infection is often noted after the funeral of a cholera victim where contamination occurs as a result of poor hygiene in food preparation.
Good sanitation, clean drinking water and improved hygiene practices, such as washing hands after visiting the toilet and before preparing food, are all strategies that need to be followed to prevent the outbreak of cholera.
Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students
Grade : 9
Subject : Biology
Lesson : Why Do We Fall Ill?
Topic: Cholera Video
Visit www.oztern.com to find personalized test preparation solutions for Pre Medical – AIPMT, AIIMS, JIPMER, State, Pre Engineering – IIT JEE, JEE MAIN, BITSAT, State and Foundations – Class 6 to 10.