Introduction About Atmospheric Pressure:
The atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by the weight of the Earth’s atmosphere, expressed per unit area in a given horizontal cross-section. Thus, the atmospheric pressure is equal to the weight of a vertical column of air above the Earth’s surface, extending to the outer limits of the atmosphere.
The atmospheric pressure is the weight exerted by the overhead atmosphere on a unit area of surface. It can be measured with a mercury barometer, consisting of a long glass tube full of mercury inverted over a pool of mercury: Figure 2-1 Mercury barometer When the tube is inverted over the pool, mercury flows out of the tube, creating a vacuum in the head space, and stabilizes at an equilibrium height h over the surface of the pool. This equilibrium requires that the pressure exerted on the mercury at two points on the horizontal surface of the pool, A (inside the tube) and B (outside the tube), be equal. The pressure PA at point A is that of the mercury column overhead, while the pressure PB at point B is that of the atmosphere overhead. We obtain PA from measurement of h: (2.1) where ρHg = 13.6 g cm-3 is the density of mercury and g = 9.8 m s-2 is the acceleration of gravity. The mean value of h measured at sea level is 76.0 cm, and the corresponding atmospheric pressure is 1.013×105 kg m-1 s-2 in SI units. The SI pressure unit is called the Pascal (Pa); 1 Pa = 1 kg m-1 s-2. Customary pressure units are the atmosphere (atm) (1 atm = 1.013×105 Pa), the bar (b) (1 b = 1×105 Pa), the millibar (mb) (1 mb = 100 Pa), and the torr (1 torr = 1 mm Hg = 134 Pa). The use of millibars is slowly giving way to the equivalent SI unit of hectoPascals (hPa). The mean atmospheric pressure at sea level is given equivalently as P = 1.013×105 Pa = 1013 hPa = 1013 mb = 1 atm = 760 torr.
Useful for CBSE, ICSE, NCERT & International Students
Grade : 8
Subject : Chemistry
Lesson : Air
Topic: Atmospheric Pressure
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